ScholarWorks @ ACE Library
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A Phenomenological Study of Cybersecurity Technologists’ Decision to Become Educators
Nationally, a shortage exists of qualified cybersecurity persons entering the field, posing challenges for higher education institutions in locating qualified educators to help fill the gap. A wealth of literature discusses the needs of students, yet literature outlining qualities of attracting graduates to become educators is lacking. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to examine, recognize, and describe the lived experiences that influenced cybersecurity graduates to the field of higher education. The study was guided by Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s social cognitive career theory and Mezirow’s transformative learning theory, as each focuses on the awareness of self and motivating behaviors in choosing an occupational career path. The research questions that directed the study were created to examine the experiences that prompted cybersecurity graduates to become educators in the field of higher education. Seventeen postsecondary educators from Texas completed a video-conferencing interview and member-checking review. The data revealed three emergent themes and eight subthemes from the participants’ experiences regarding how the decision was made to enter the field of higher education. Findings from the study can benefit stakeholders in the fields of academic advising and admissions, and human resources guiding the recruitment process of future cybersecurity educators.
Leadership Styles of Minority Women Administrators in Academic Medicine: A Quantitative Study
Leader development in academic medicine is lacking for women, particularly women of color. The problem is Black and Hispanic/Latinx women are underrepresented in leadership positions in academic medicine. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to determine if a statistically significant difference existed between the transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadership styles of Black and Hispanic/Latinx women administrators in academic medicine to gain a greater understanding of the differences between their leadership styles. The study sample was 131 Black and Hispanic/Latinx women administrators in U.S. medical schools who self-identified as either Black or Hispanic/Latinx. They were recruited via professional social media contacts and volunteered to participate. The theoretical framework for the study was the full range of leadership theory. The study instrument was the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X. Data were analyzed using an independent samples t-test. The study's findings suggest a statistically significant difference between the leadership styles of Black and Hispanic/Latinx women administrators in all three leadership styles, with Hispanic/Latinx women indicating they are more transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant than Black women. The findings also suggest sub-group differences in Hispanic/Latinx women in transformational leadership. Data results support the development of leadership programs that recognize the differences among women administrators, as well as programs that recognize the differences between minority women. Key words: leadership styles, transformational leadership, transactional leadership, passive/avoidant leadership, women, minority, diversity, healthcare, healthcare organizations, and healthcare leadership
A Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Educator Perspectives on Full Inclusive Teaching Environments
The problem was general education classroom educators in a rural northeast Ohio school district did not identify as prepared to provide effective instruction to learners of wide-ranging academic and physical abilities in inclusive classroom. Study significance was evident in organizational shifts benefiting inclusive model educators and students. Stakeholders may benefit from research findings, with positive impact on inclusive models. Literature gaps existed regarding teacher training and need identification supporting inclusive students. Transformational leadership and social constructivist theories provided the theoretical framework for the study. Key research questions prompted seeking lived experience of inclusive educators, documentation of the experience, instructional strategies, and administrative elements supporting teachers. The purpose of the study was to understand how general education teachers perceived preparation to provide effective instruction in inclusive classrooms. In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, data were collected using semistructured interviews from 15 K-12 general education teachers in inclusive classrooms at the site, excluding intervention specialists. Data collection included professional development transcript analysis, demographic inquiry, and semistructured interviews utilizing a researcher-created instrument, with thematic analysis model examination of data. Transcriptions were member-checked by participants. Multiple data encounters established familiarity, initiating coding for theme identification and labeling. Latent expression and patterns were evaluated to saturation, and codes collapsed for interpretation related to research questions. Key results yielded insufficient training and ineffective application of least restrictive environment (LRE). Co-teaching models were identified as ineffective resulting in failed authentic differentiation and tiered instruction. Recommendations included time for professional development and increasing opportunities for co-planning and cooperative teaching. Keywords: IDEA, ESSA, inclusive teaching, inclusive classrooms, inclusive efficacy, student outcome inclusion, characteristics of learners with disabilities, teacher preparedness for inclusion, social learning theory, social constructivism, transformational leadership
Examining English Learner Supports During the Pandemic Era: A Causal Comparative Study
Marginalized students require support for equitable learning opportunities. The problem was the abrupt transition from in-person to online learning in the 2020 pandemic era presented challenges for educators to implement supports, such as the communicative approach and social-emotional learning, necessary for English learner (EL) success. Although qualitative research has explored EL challenges during online learning, additional quantitative research was needed to examine program success. A theoretical framework was used to examine language learning approaches, social-emotional learning, ELs, and online learning during the 2020 pandemic era. The purpose of this causal-comparative quantitative study was to test for statistically significant differences in Florida public school districts’ EL ACCESS test scores between the treatment and control groups from 2019 to 2020 after treatment groups received implementation of communicative approach-aligned instruction and social-emotional learning programs during the 2020 pandemic era. A mixed analysis of variance test was used to analyze 2019 and 2020 EL ACCESS test scores in Florida. Each district was categorized into control or treatment groups based on a clustering sampling method of district variable implementations. Three research questions guided the examination of the effects of the communicative approach, social-emotional learning, and both approaches applied together as independent variables. Analyses revealed no statistical significance of programs on EL test scores. Recommendations include future research efforts with a larger scale and post-online learning scores and evaluation criteria for Florida schools’ instructional initiatives. Keywords: English learners, pandemic, communicative approach, social-emotional learning
A Causal-Comparative Study of Cell Phone Policies and Students’ Test Performance
Regulating the distractions that the indiscriminate use of cell phones in classrooms poses has become a challenge for K–12 schools. The problem is that no specific cell phone use policy has guaranteed the attainment of higher learning outcomes among young adolescents. As cell phone distractions in secondary classrooms become a ubiquitous problem, this study is essential due to the lack of convergence in empirical evidence for validating the effects of cell phone regulation on students’ mathematics achievement. The purpose of this causal-comparative quantitative study was to test for statistically significant differences between the 2018-19 Smarter Balanced 10th-grade aggregate math test scores of selected high schools in Washington State based on their implementation of prohibitive versus permissive cell phone use policies. Self-determination and constructivist learning theories served as the theoretical framework for this study. Sixty-five public high schools were selected based on strict inclusion criteria. One research question was posed to test for significant differences among schools’ aggregate math scores based on pre–COVID-19 cell phone use policies. Data were analyzed with SPSS, using an independent t-test. There was not enough evidence to suggest that a statistically significant difference existed between the math scores achieved at cell phone permissive (M=56.83, SD=12.96) versus prohibiting (M=56.88, SD=10.88) schools. Educators were challenged to devise strategies for channeling cell phones toward instructional use. Further research on a larger scale across diverse demographics was recommended.