Leadership Styles of Minority Women Administrators in Academic Medicine: A Quantitative Study

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Leader development in academic medicine is lacking for women, particularly women of color. The problem is Black and Hispanic/Latinx women are underrepresented in leadership positions in academic medicine. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to determine if a statistically significant difference existed between the transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadership styles of Black and Hispanic/Latinx women administrators in academic medicine to gain a greater understanding of the differences between their leadership styles. The study sample was 131 Black and Hispanic/Latinx women administrators in U.S. medical schools who self-identified as either Black or Hispanic/Latinx. They were recruited via professional social media contacts and volunteered to participate. The theoretical framework for the study was the full range of leadership theory. The study instrument was the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X. Data were analyzed using an independent samples t-test. The study's findings suggest a statistically significant difference between the leadership styles of Black and Hispanic/Latinx women administrators in all three leadership styles, with Hispanic/Latinx women indicating they are more transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant than Black women. The findings also suggest sub-group differences in Hispanic/Latinx women in transformational leadership. Data results support the development of leadership programs that recognize the differences among women administrators, as well as programs that recognize the differences between minority women. Key words: leadership styles, transformational leadership, transactional leadership, passive/avoidant leadership, women, minority, diversity, healthcare, healthcare organizations, and healthcare leadership