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- Item21st Century Instruction: A Descriptive Case Study of a One-to-One Chromebook School(2022-09) Alcazar, Jennifer A.Schools in the United States make significant investments in educational technology (ET) in an attempt to develop essential 21st century skills in students. The problem was a lack of understanding about whether the use of ET by teachers was effective in promoting innovative skills. A better understanding of the effective use of ET may maximize investments and promote the development of future ready skills. A gap exists in the communication of specific strategies that may be used to develop 21st century skills. The purpose of the study was to explore teacher perceptions of ET use in a one-to-one Chromebook program. Social Cognitive Theory provided the theoretical framework for the study. Key research questions explored teacher perceptions regarding ET use as well as perceived critical supports for successful instruction. Using a qualitative case study design, 16 teacher participants were surveyed, interviewed, and invited to submit lesson artifacts. Purposeful sampling was used to select teachers utilizing Chromebooks at least three times weekly in core content areas. Participant responses, surveys, and artifacts were coded using NVivo software, and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Results indicated teachers developed 21st century skills in students through online collaboration, digital presentations, and research. Teachers also indicated a need for increased time to collaborate and access to on-site support providers. Study recommendations include the provision of increased time to teachers to build practical implementation knowledge and self-efficacy levels and the use of on-site technology support providers.
- ItemA Correlational Study of Belongingness and Persistence in Engineering Academies Students(2023-05-08) Bangstein, Bjorn HaraldThe growing number of U.S. engineering jobs signifies a need for more students to pursue engineering degrees. To increase access to engineering education, in 2015, Texas A&M University established Engineering Academies (EA) in cooperation with selected community colleges. The problem addressed in this study was a lack of knowledge about why Texas A&M EA students’ first-year retention has since 2015 consistently been about 10% lower than the rate for on-campus students. Researchers have suggested that sociological noncognitive factors such as belongingness may affect students’ decisions to persist or leave engineering. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the statistical relationships for three separate constructs of belongingness: (a) the classroom, (b) the university as a community, and (c) the university as an institution in relation to EA student persistence. The study was framed by student integration and servant leadership theories to determine how belongingness influences the intention to persist. Data were collected from an internet-based survey of 155 first-year EA students. Three Pearson product-moment correlations revealed statistically significant correlations between students’ three constructs of belongingness and persistence with different strengths of associations (weak, medium, and strong). The findings suggest that leaders of Texas A&M University Engineering Academies should implement preentry intervention programs and college transition assistance to increase first-year retention. Recommendations for future research include determining if persistence for continued enrollment correlates with actual retention as well as assessing if preentry programs and college transition strategies enhance associations between belongingness and persistence for first-year EA students. Keywords: belongingness, persistence, retention, co-enrolled student, community college pathway program, engineering academies.
- ItemA Phenomenological Exploration of Non-academic Services Offered Through the Center for Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion(2023-07-28) Cassells-White, MichelleCommunity colleges have a long history of providing entrance to higher education to minority students who enroll in these institutions underprepared and deprived of basic needs. With limited resources, community college leaders are expected to assist students in academic pursuits. The Center for Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (Center for EDI) was developed using a transformational leadership approach to help address students' holistic needs at a small urban community college in Connecticut. The problem was despite the provision of non-academic support services in post-secondary education, much was not known about the benefits of the services through the experiences of the students, and in some cases, services were under-utilized. The purpose of this study was to understand the lived experiences of urban community college students on the use of non-academic services offered by the Center for Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion and the overall influence of services on retention. Transformational leadership theory directed the study. Research questions focused on the experiences of students using non-academic services at the Center for EDI and the non-academic support services influence on student retention. The qualitative phenomenological study consisted of 17 participants who were identified by means of criterion sampling. A field-tested semi-structured interview instrument was used for data collection. Interviews were administered through Zoom online platform. Peoples’ six steps flow chart was employed to conduct the data analysis. The compelling accounts presented by participants engendered four major themes. Findings revealed non-academic support services influenced semester-to-semester retention. Further inquiry should be conducted to corroborate the findings.
- ItemA Phenomenological Study of Alternative Education School Leader Servant Leadership Characteristics in Texas(2022-06) Pratt, David RandallAlternative education schools provide marginalized students a different method of achieving success in school. The problem facing alternative education schools of choice (AESOC) in Texas was the lack of defined servant leadership characteristics and how those characteristics further the mission of AESOC. Studies have linked servant leadership characteristics with effective alternative school practices in general. The purpose of the phenomenological study was to explore what servant leadership characteristics are revealed in the lived experiences of exemplary leaders of AESOC in Texas and how those characteristics advance the mission of AESOC. Research identifying characteristics of effective AESOC leaders was lacking. Servant leadership and social learning theory provide the theoretical framework. Research Question 1 explored What servant leader characteristics are exhibited by AESOC leaders’ lived experiences in Texas. The second research question looked at how servant leadership characteristics exhibited by AESOC leaders’ lived experiences advance the mission of AESOC. Social learning factors improve student success in schools of choice. Semi-structured interviews, conducted through teleconferencing, explored the lived experiences of 20 exemplary alternative education leaders in Texas. Relationships were the overarching theme influencing themes of mission and vision, leadership styles, accountability, and respect. Exemplary AESOC leaders exhibit characteristics comparable to servant leadership. These characteristics further the mission of the AESOC. Further research is needed to determine if leaders other than AESOC leaders exhibit servant leader characteristics.
- ItemA Phenomenological Study of Cybersecurity Technologists’ Decision to Become Educators(2021-09) Lightcap, Richard W.Nationally, a shortage exists of qualified cybersecurity persons entering the field, posing challenges for higher education institutions in locating qualified educators to help fill the gap. A wealth of literature discusses the needs of students, yet literature outlining qualities of attracting graduates to become educators is lacking. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to examine, recognize, and describe the lived experiences that influenced cybersecurity graduates to the field of higher education. The study was guided by Lent, Brown, and Hackett’s social cognitive career theory and Mezirow’s transformative learning theory, as each focuses on the awareness of self and motivating behaviors in choosing an occupational career path. The research questions that directed the study were created to examine the experiences that prompted cybersecurity graduates to become educators in the field of higher education. Seventeen postsecondary educators from Texas completed a video-conferencing interview and member-checking review. The data revealed three emergent themes and eight subthemes from the participants’ experiences regarding how the decision was made to enter the field of higher education. Findings from the study can benefit stakeholders in the fields of academic advising and admissions, and human resources guiding the recruitment process of future cybersecurity educators.
- ItemA Phenomenological Study of Leadership Competencies in Nonprofit Higher Education(0022-07-28) Zary, Patrizia S.Leadership skills are vital in developing and building influential leaders in organizations. The identified research problem was the absence of communication, collaboration, and strategic agility competencies among leaders in nonprofit higher education institutions in the United States. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore how collaboration, communication, and strategic agility competencies were experienced among leaders at a nonprofit higher education institution in the United States. Transformational and servant leadership theories formed the theoretical framework examining characteristics, behaviors, and features promoting positive leadership. Two research questions guided the study to explore the shortfall of communication, collaboration, and strategic agility competencies and assess how the competencies improved leadership performance. Twenty-one participants were chosen from three leadership levels: entry, middle, and executive. Instruments used for the study entailed an online questionnaire soliciting participation and a semistructured interview conducted virtually via Zoom. The data were analyzed using an open inductive coding process and sorted by comment scope, code, and participant. Findings revealed themes related to better talent conversation, further leadership development, and further investigation of the understanding of strategic agility skills.
- ItemA Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Declining Enrollment Trends in Private Christian Schools(2022-04-30) Binkley, AmandaAbstract The problem was the enrollment decline in private Christian schools in the United States, particularly in the National Christian School Association (NCSA). The identified gap in the literature was the absence of various perspectives and experiences of stakeholder groups (e.g., parents, teachers, and administrators) on the problem of enrollment decline in private Christian schools. The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholder perceptions concerning why private Christian school enrollment has declined, specifically at NCSA member schools. The theoretical framework for the study drew from Friedman’s school choice theory and transformational leadership theory. The key question driving the study focused on the perceptions of various stakeholders concerning the phenomenon of declining Christian school enrollment. The research design for the research study was qualitative phenomenology. Data were collected via 19 questionnaires and 11 in-depth follow-up interviews. Open and axial coding was used to identify deductive and inductive themes in the data. Participant data revealed the up-and-down nature of Christian school enrollment, as opposed to consistent decline. Results of the study revealed church affiliation negatively influenced enrollment trends, whereas broad values had a positive influence. Results revealed a school’s value proposition is most influenced by school reputation, tuition rate, clientele, extracurriculars, and academics. Increased school choice options were reported to harm private Christian school enrollment. Finally, the COVID-19 global pandemic has led to a resurgence in positive enrollment trends. Recommendations for future study include the long-term impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on private Christian school enrollment. Keywords: private Christian school, enrollment, phenomenology, Friedman’s school choice theory, transformational leadership theory, Christian mission, parent priorities, value proposition, COVID-19
- ItemA Qualitative Study of Language as a Factor in Hispanic Worker Injuries(0023-08-04) Thompson, RylandConstruction workplaces are dynamic with many hazards exposing workers to injuries. Hispanics and non-Hispanics are employed in the industry, but Hispanics sustain higher injury rates. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of construction managers in South Florida concerning the possible influence of language and culture on injuries to Hispanic construction workers. A literature review revealed sparse inquiry into management's perception of the influence of language and culture on Hispanic construction worker injuries. The lack of research provided an opportunity for inquiry into the lived experiences of construction managers in fulfilling leadership obligations for worker safety. Social justice and transactional leadership provided the underpinning theoretical framework. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of construction managers. A phenomenological design using semi-structured interview questions was used to capture data from 16 construction managers with Hispanic employees, in the Tri-Counties of Florida. Data were subjected to thematic analysis and four themes emerged: (a) employee culture of limited safety regulations, (b) importance of communication to worker safety, (c) importance of safety training to injury prevention, and (d) no compromise of employee safety for production. Results revealed agreement on the influence of Hispanic culture on employee workplace practices and the need to communicate safety information in a language they can understand. A key recommendation was to train management on the cultural factors influencing the safety practices of Hispanic workers. Keywords: construction, culture and language, leadership, management, Hispanic
- ItemAcademic Quality Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in Biology: A Quantitative Correlational Study(2022) Ramakrishnan, SujathaAbstract The area of interest considered for the study was the overall academic achievement in biology lecture and laboratory courses using Bloom’s Taxonomy. The problem of the study is the lack of higher-order thinking skills leading to a learning gap in many universities and colleges. The purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between the biology lecture examination question answers (correct or incorrect), a dichotomous variable, based on Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the matching laboratory assessment grade, a continuous variable, received by 51 students in a community college in northern New Jersey. The framework for this study was created by combining descriptive theory, meta-theory, and Bloom’s Taxonomy. The key research questions included the relationship between lecture assessments and laboratory assessment grades of students in General Biology I. Archival data and a Point Biserial Correlation was used for data analysis. The key results include two significant relationships and one non-significant relationship between the lecture assessment questions and the laboratory assessment grades. The main conclusion portrays how the knowledge/comprehension question has no relationship with the laboratory assessment grade and the application/analysis and synthesis/evaluation questions have a relationship with the laboratory assessment grades. Instructional faculty can benefit from the study and implications include improving the academic outcomes of students at the basic and advanced levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
- ItemAccuracy and Quality of Open Educational Resources: A Phenomenological Study(2020) Rambow, AndreasCollege textbook prices rose by 1,041% between January 1977 and June 2015. This percentage increase represented three times the rate of annual inflation. College and university instructors consider the move to open educational resources (OERs) as an attempt to lower the cost of higher education in the United States. The selection of open educational resources represents a challenge in the absence of a standard set of selection criteria. Instructors have different perspectives about the accuracy and quality of open educational resources. Mezirow’s (1981) theory of transformative learning underpinned the study. The purpose of this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore perspectives about the accuracy and quality of OERs among instructors who have experience in applying Quality Matters’ (QM) standards in online course design and who have adopted and used OERs in online undergraduate courses. This research study employed a qualitative methodology with a hermeneutic phenomenological design. Sixteen voluntary participating faculty members were interviewed using Zoom. The audio files transcribed to text documents were the primary data source. Open and axial codes emerged from the interviews in a line-by-line review of each transcript leading to sentences or sentence fragments indicative of the faculty members’ responses. Faculty members cited cost, social equity, and lifelong learning as the main reasons to switch to OERs. The faculty members’ lived experiences using open educational resources in online undergraduate classes are discussed, analyzed, and presented. The research study presents implications for leadership and recommendations for future research.
- ItemAddressing Completion in Level I Workforce Certificate Programs in Rural East Texas(2019-07) Dozier, RondaBy 2018, 56% of all job openings required skilled training or a workforce certificate to meet the technical skills needed for business and industry. The problem of this study was that low completion rates in Level I workforce certificate programs at community colleges across Texas contributes to the increasing shortage of available skilled workers to fill vacated and new positions in business and industry. This study was intended to provide answers to the research questions about which groups of students enrolled in Level I workforce certificate programs in rural east Texas are completing at higher rates than others. The purpose of this quantitative research study was to discover to what extent significant correlations exist in completion rates by gender, race/ethnicity, and college for adult students in Level I workforce certificate-programs at rural, east Texas community colleges from 2014-2017. The quantitative correlational research study was conducted using archival data posted on a public website. The population consisted of approximately 470,000 students across Texas, the archival data were collected, and the sample included all students who failed to complete a Level I workforce certificate from one of four community colleges listed in the study. While research has been conducted about completion in higher education in general, there was little information specifically targeting completion from Level I certificates at rural community colleges.
- ItemAdolescents Who Are Bereft: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study(2021) Reilley, DarleneLosing a parent as a child or adolescent is difficult. The loss can have a substantial impact on the youth’s future. The problem is students who are bereft in public schools in the United States often go unidentified by educators, which can impact academic performance and behaviors. A review of the literature revealed a gap in studies focused on identification systems or programs to facilitate advocacy for students who are bereft. Students who are bereft have unique needs. A child or adolescent who receives no professional help to manage grief has the propensity to quell grief through unhealthy lifestyle choices. There is a need to identify children and adolescents who are bereft as soon as possible to provide nurturing support to avoid short- and long-term consequences of unresolved grief. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the academic performance and behavior experiences of students who are bereft in grades 7-12 from a semiurban junior / senior high school in the northeastern United States through the perceptions of their educators. The theoretical framework of the study was shaped by theory of change and situational leadership theory. The research questions were centered on educators’ perceptions of how the death of a parent affects a student’s academic performance and behavior. Two data collection tools—semistructured interviews and a focus group—were used to explore the perceptions of educators from different capacities in the public school setting. Findings showed educators unanimously agreed a formal identification system would benefit parentally bereft students’ academic performance and behavior. Not knowing of a student who has lost a parent often results in an educator having a negative experience, academically or behaviorally, with a student who is bereft.
- ItemAn Examination of WIDA ACCESS Scores of English Language Learners in Charter and Traditional Public Schools Settings: A Quantitative Study(2022-05-31) Gibson, CharlesCharter schools have become the fastest-growing school in the United States. While the popularity of charters grew, an increased student population of English language learners enrolled in public schools. The problem was not knowing if there is a difference between English language learner performance in traditional public schools and charter schools in a large metropolitan school district in the Southeast. The purpose of the quantitative, ex post facto study was to investigate academic performance among ELLs to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between participation in charter and traditional public schools and between elementary, middle, and high school levels through a review of World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA), Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State for English Language Learners (ACCESS) scores for 20 charter schools and 20 traditional public schools in a large metropolitan southeastern school district. Rational choice theory and contingency theory of leadership were used to guide this study. Research questions were used to investigate statistically significant differences in academic performance using two-way ANOVA. School-level WIDA ACCESS measures from 2017 were collected for kindergarten through 12th grade. The sample consisted of 1161 charters and 3499 traditional public schools within the same school district. Using WIDA ACCESS, a quantitative, ex post facto research design using two-way ANOVA in SPSS was used to analyze the valid test scores of English language learners who met the exit criteria for the 2017 academic year. An absence of differences in charter and traditional public-school performance implies that the selected school district in the Southeast should focus on policy revision and funding allocation to strengthen school choice options using similar strategies that provide supplemental resources.
- ItemAn Exploratory Case Study on Professional Development, Self-Efficacy and Educational Change(2023-12-05) Martinez, AliceProfessional development is widely used in schools at all levels to provide teachers with the necessary skills to deliver relevant and effective instruction, to increase student achievement, and drive educational change both in classrooms and in schools overall. The problem is that professional development inadequately addresses the knowledge practice gap that exists between teacher participation in professional development, teacher self-efficacy, student learning, and educational change. This is a problem that can be explored through a study. Thirty to thirty-five K-12 teachers participated in a focus group and responded to a teacher self-efficacy questionnaire. The data collected was used to identify patterns about teachers’ professional development experiences, perspectives, and attitudes about the impact on instruction, educational change, and student achievement. The case study was grounded in Bandura’s Theory of Self-Efficacy and Burns’ Transformational Leadership Theory to support the premise that effective professional development considers the tenants of teacher self-efficacy and transformational leadership to bring about positive changes in instructional practice, student achievement, and educational change.
- ItemA Basic Qualitative Study of Female Seminary Instructors as a Minority Group(2021-03) Merrill, Matthew CopeIn the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the religious education (seminary) program for high school-age students disproportionately consists of male seminary instructors and administrators. The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of female seminary instructors through the lens of feminist and empowerment theories. Fifteen female seminary instructors were selected to participate in one-on-one interviews to provide data as a minority group within the seminary instructor population. A focus group of five instructors from the one-on-one interviews were invited to discuss the collected data and offer further analysis. The research identified multiple examples of gender bias and gender inequality experienced by the seminary instructors. The focus group recommended several changes in administration efforts to better train, educate, and improve gender equality among stakeholders. The recommended modifications included more clear communication of gender policy changes, increased efforts to improve workplace satisfaction for female instructors, and greater support for female instructors to return to graduate school with minor children living at home. The study could assist female seminary instructors’ colleagues, principals, and administrators with efforts to eliminate gender inequality and gender bias and improve the work environment for all employees.
- ItemBeginning Teacher Perceptions of District-Based Induction Coaching: A Phenomenology(2022-12-19) Sire-Derrick, FrancesA shortage of highly qualified teachers across the nation has prompted school districts to relax certification standards to fill vacant positions. The problem is the growing number of teachers being placed in the skills needed to positively impact student achievement. Gaps in the literature show not much is known about the precise and repeatable actions of district-based induction coaches directly impacting beginning teacher practice. Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory and Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory provide a framework for understanding beginning teacher knowledge and skill acquisition and coaching leadership stances. The research questions guiding the study ask: What are the lived experiences of beginning teachers who participated in district-based induction coaching; What impact, if any, do beginning teachers believe district-based induction coaches had on their instructional practice, and what are beginning teacher opinions about ways to improve district-based coaching techniques. The qualitative, phenomenological study involved twenty beginning teacher participants with under five years’ experience. Two (2) semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used as instruments to collect data. Transcripts were analyzed, categorized, and coded into themes that evolved into study findings. The results of the study reveal influential practices of district-based induction coaches. Suggestions for improving district coaching practices and overcoming challenges are discussed. Recommendations for further research are presented. Keywords: beginning teacher, district-based induction, instructional practice, coach credentialing, coaching certification
- ItemCase Study of Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices Related to Collaborative Curriculum Planning(2021) Caughell, MatthewThe problem is a lack of understanding about how teachers use and perceive collaborative curriculum planning (CCP) time provided within the scheduled school day. Collecting data on CCP perceptions and practices can lead to a better understanding of how to support teachers and ways leaders can put systems in place to increase the effectiveness of CCP. A gap in literature existed of studies examining how teachers perceive CCP and practices occurring during CCP. Collective intelligence was the conceptual framework. The purpose of the qualitative case study was to investigate practices and perceptions of five teams of middle school teachers participating in CCP at middle schools. Three research questions focused on exploring common and differing practices grades 6–8 middle school teachers demonstrated during CCP, middle school teachers’ perceptions of CCP, and how middle school teachers’ perceptions of CCP compare to practices observed during CCP. Middle school teachers working in teams throughout the district during CCP time were observed and then interviewed. Seventeen teachers working in teams consisting of at least three teachers each served as the sample. Collected data were coded with the aid of Atlas.ti software. Five major themes emerged as practices occurring during CCP, along with five common perceptions about CCP. Alignment of practices to teachers’ perceptions varied. CCP time is important to teachers, and school leaders should consider how to create and support effective CCP teams.
- ItemA Causal-comparative Study of Teacher Self-efficacy in Virtual Charter Schools(2022-02) Alverson, LoriTeacher self-efficacy is the belief in the ability to impact students’ success. There is limited research about teachers’ self-efficacy levels in the virtual K–12 environment. Self-efficacy may play a key role in job satisfaction, teacher retention, and higher student achievement. Research literature focused on teaching preparation programs and faculty in higher education but was minimal for the K–12 context. This quantitative study aimed to increase the scope in the literature to K–12 virtual charter schools and determined if there were any significant statistical differences in teacher self-efficacy and attitudes towards science, technology, engineering, and math in the online setting. The theoretical foundation was the intersection of self-efficacy theory and servant leadership. The research questions determined if there were a statistically significant difference between teacher self-efficacy and attitudes towards STEM when compared across the subject matter of elementary, science, technology, engineering, and math, along with the comparison of virtual teaching experience. The causal–comparative design used purposive and snowball sampling methods. The 104 K–12 virtual teacher participants used the Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes Toward STEM Survey. Data was collected through Survey Monkey and then run through statistical analysis with SPSS software. The study results showed significant statistical differences in mean composite scores on the T-STEM survey across subject matter and years of virtual teaching experience groups. There was no statistical interaction between subject areas and years of virtual teaching experience. Leaders may survey the needs of their staff to determine their online teaching proficiency and provide support for gaps in proficiencies.
- ItemCausal-Comparative Study of the Effect of Per-Pupil Spending on Achievement by Florida Algebra Students(2023) Sears, John J.Higher levels of student achievement are required to meet the needs of a changing workforce. The effect increases in education spending have on student learning gains among algebra students in Florida was unknown. Most research on per-pupil funding and student achievement is qualitative and measures opinions on the long-term effects of increased funding. The purpose of this quantitative study was to expand the scope of the literature and determine whether there was a statistically significant relationship between per-pupil funding and student achievement. This study was based on the theory of motivation and social learning theory. The data showed a statistically significant relationship between per-pupil funding and student achievement. A causal-comparative design evaluated the differences in performance between higher- and lower-funded students on the Florida Algebra 1 End of Course exam. The scores of 197,523 students were used to measure student achievement. Data from the Florida Department of Education provided funding information for counties in Florida. Data were analyzed in Excel for statistical significance. The study’s findings showed a statistically significant difference exists between higher and lower-funded students on Florida Algebra I EOC exams. The results suggest that educational leaders should closely examine where per-pupil funding can be spent to achieve the best results for student achievement. Educational leaders can use this information to improve student achievement.Josh Keywords: Florida Algebra 1 End of Course Exam, per-pupil funding, quantitative, social learning theory, student achievement, theory of motivation
- ItemChild Nutrition and Cognitive Development: A Content Analysis(2021-06) Arnold, RonnieNationally, approximately 6 million children are suffering from food insecurity. Children living in a food-insecure environment are at greater risk of nutritional deficiencies, which can decrease the ability to learn and lessen cognitive development in K–12 students. Data from the study addressed the gap of limited understanding of the potential thematic relationships across different situational environments and factors that influence success at school. The purpose of the qualitative content analysis (QCA) study was to analyze peer-reviewed medical journals to reveal the influence food has on a student’s cognitive ability to learn. The significance of the study was to combat the effects of food on learning by incorporating knowledge into teaching and societal practices. Understanding potential thematic relationships can add overall knowledge to the connection between nutrition and academic performance and close the gap in knowledge via concise coding of peer-reviewed medical journals. The QCA study research goals focused on the conceptualization of data to create coding schemes that analyze the issues through a data reduction system, the abstraction of categories, and the thematic analysis between undernutrition and academic achievement. Selecting the appropriate peer-reviewed literature required the use of Walker and Avant’s method, which was used to identify, refine, evaluate, and define the attributes of concepts used to answer the research questions. The major themes of the literature review that emerged were food deserts, food insecurity, nutrition and cognitive performance, nutrition and physical activity, stress, working memory, and attendance and absenteeism. The study had three limitations: sample size, time constraints, and lack of collecting representative data.