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- ItemA Correlational Study Examining the Relationship Between Police Officer Education and Supervisory Evaluations of Performance in a Medium-Sized Law Enforcement Agency in Tennessee(2018-04) Smalley, MatthewThere is no research-based consensus about the benefits of a postsecondary education as it relates to police officer job performance, leaving police executives with little guidance when establishing educational hiring criteria. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine the degree to which the possession of a postsecondary education degree was correlated with measures of police officer job performance in a medium-sized municipal law enforcement agency in the state of Tennessee. This measurement was accomplished by examining 206 numerical annual supervisory performance evaluations and education data for 85 police officers during a three-year period (2013–2015). This sample represented all nonsupervisory police officers employed by the agency of interest who received performance evaluations for the position of police officer during the study period. The study was designed to determine if a positive correlation existed between possessing a postsecondary education degree and supervisory ratings of police officer performance in four categories: general professionalism, productivity, technical knowledge, and management skills. No significant correlations were found in the sample between education and supervisory ratings of general professionalism and productivity. Significant positive, but weak correlations were found in the sample between education and supervisory ratings of technical knowledge (r = .172, p = .014) and management skills (r = .146, p = .036). This study showed mixed and inconclusive results about the relationship between police officer education and performance, consistent with existing literature. The study’s findings provided the basis for recommendations to law enforcement executives and future researchers wishing to gain further insight into the relationship between police officer education and performance.
- ItemExamining Middle School Teacher Perceptions of the Next Generation Science Standards: A Qualitative Study(2018-06-20) Harris, MiltonScience education in the US entered a period of reform in 2011 with the development and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The NGSS have subsequently been adopted in 18 states. School districts within these states are in the process of adjusting science curricula to align with the academic expectations described by the standards. Science teachers’ perceptions have implications for the kinds of inquiry-based teaching employed in science classrooms. This dissertation examines middle school science teachers’ perceptions of the NGSS. The research questions designed for this study address teachers’ perceptions of (1) the ‘seven conceptual shifts’ proposed by the NGSS, (2) the resources and support systems provided for NGSS implementation, and (3) challenges to implementing the NGSS. A constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to explore these research questions. Data were collected from surveys and semi-structured interviews with teachers, and actual science lessons used by teachers. Teachers’ perceptions of the NGSS were mostly consistent with the seven conceptual shifts expected during NGSS implementation. Sustained, relevant, professional development, collaboration with colleagues, availability of NGSS aligned resources, and flexible learner-centered classrooms were among the things teachers reported to be most beneficial during NGSS implementation. Teachers also reported barriers to implementation, including confusion regarding the organization of the standards, varying interpretations of the standards, insufficient time for proper implementation, and science teachers’ personal expectations. This study provides insights regarding how pre-service educators, education leaders, and policymakers can best support middle school science teachers in implementing the NGSS.
- ItemA Qualitative Intrinsic Case Study to Explore Perception of Servant Leadership Among Novice Assistant Principal(2018-12) O'Neill, DavidAssistant principalship is the first step in educational leadership. Much is required of the new assistant principal, which needs to be learned with little training. There is sufficient information describing the work environment of a novice assistant principal. There is a specific gap in the research to understand the knowledge novice assistant principals have regarding servant leadership theory, skills, and resources. The qualitative intrinsic case study will explore the familiarity novice assistant principals have with servant leadership and what servant leadership traits align as best practices in the leadership role. The purpose of the qualitative intrinsic case study is to explore the familiarity of servant leadership concepts among 15 novice assistant principals in the Northern Virginia region. The research is designed with open-ended questions to be given in an interview format. The 15 novice assistant principals will be selected from four school systems and have no more than three years of administrative experience. Collection of data is from three instruments: an interview to explore familiarity with servant leadership, completing a Word document detailing job responsibility, and a webinar designed for a focus group. Data will be analyzed by a triangulated method to include preset and emergent coding systems, which lead to categorical analysis. The study will benefit novice assistant principals in seeing servant leadership as a viable resource for the work environment. Additionally, the study will enhance foundational knowledge in educational leadership and educational professional development
- ItemExplicit Writing Directions in an Elementary Setting: An Ex Post Facto Study(2019) Ringling, RichardWriting skills are an important part of students’ education, but, compared to math and reading, there is less research into the field of writing instruction and fewer curriculum options available. According to currently available research, explicit instruction of specific skills is the most effective method for improving students’ writing ability. Based on the theoretical frameworks of social learning theory and social constructivism theory, Step Up to Writing (SUTW) is a commercially available writing curriculum using explicit writing instruction, with some research showing success improving students’ writing ability. Most research into the effectiveness of SUTW has focused on middle school students and at-risk students. This dissertation attempts to address the gap in research by comparing the effectiveness of explicit writing instruction and SUTW in an elementary school to a control group. The experimental school for the study has been using SUTW for three years, while the control school, a sister school with similar demographics in the same district, did not. End-of-fifth-grade writing samples were collected from students from each school (control N = 53, experimental N = 27), anonymized, and scored by a collaborative team using a rubric. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the school mean scores in three of four areas evaluated: organization (effect size [ES] = 1.27), ability to express ideas with details (ES = 0.82) and use of language and style (ES = 0.67). No significant difference was noted in the final area of the rubric, neatness and use of grade-level conventions. Overall, total essay mean scores were significantly different (ES = 0.86). These results support current research which supports explicit instruction of specific skills as an effective curriculum option for writing skills, and SUTW as one viable curriculum option available for teachers to consider.
- ItemAddressing Completion in Level I Workforce Certificate Programs in Rural East Texas(2019-07) Dozier, RondaBy 2018, 56% of all job openings required skilled training or a workforce certificate to meet the technical skills needed for business and industry. The problem of this study was that low completion rates in Level I workforce certificate programs at community colleges across Texas contributes to the increasing shortage of available skilled workers to fill vacated and new positions in business and industry. This study was intended to provide answers to the research questions about which groups of students enrolled in Level I workforce certificate programs in rural east Texas are completing at higher rates than others. The purpose of this quantitative research study was to discover to what extent significant correlations exist in completion rates by gender, race/ethnicity, and college for adult students in Level I workforce certificate-programs at rural, east Texas community colleges from 2014-2017. The quantitative correlational research study was conducted using archival data posted on a public website. The population consisted of approximately 470,000 students across Texas, the archival data were collected, and the sample included all students who failed to complete a Level I workforce certificate from one of four community colleges listed in the study. While research has been conducted about completion in higher education in general, there was little information specifically targeting completion from Level I certificates at rural community colleges.
- ItemA Quantitative Investigation of the Relationship Between Seventh Grade Reading Scores and High School Office Discipline Referrals(2019-12-01) Palombit, DanielStudents’ time in class and exposure to academics are essential to academic success. Disruptive student behavior can result in time out of class and missed academic instruction, which can lead to grade retention. Literature exists on reading ability, behavior, and grade retention all independent of each other but little exists on relationships between reading scores, office discipline referrals, and grade retention occurrences. With a focus on Gesell’s theory of neuromaturation, the study investigated data to support brain development theories and effects on executive functioning. The quantitative study was designed to determine whether a positive correlation existed between reading scores on standardized tests, office discipline referrals and grade retention occurrence. The sample consisted of a random, anonymous 100 student data covering a three-school year period: 2012-2013, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016. Data analyses were performed using IMB SPSS and G*Power and included Spearman correlation and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Spearman correlation analysis found statistical correlational significance between reading scores and office discipline referrals; as reading scores improved, office discipline referrals declined. Results from Kruskal-Wallis H test showed statistical significance (H(2) = 10.42, p = .005) among office discipline referrals as a function of reading scores meaning students’ high school office discipline referrals are correlated with seventh-grade reading scores and category. Since statistical analysis was not performed between reading scores and grade retention due to lack of variability on grade retention data (n = 4), a descriptive profile was generated for all grade retained students. The study’s findings showed relationships between higher standardized test reading scores and lower office discipline referrals and grade retention which can be used by educators when reviewing data, implementing interventions, and developing school- or system-wide improvement plans.
- ItemAccuracy and Quality of Open Educational Resources: A Phenomenological Study(2020) Rambow, AndreasCollege textbook prices rose by 1,041% between January 1977 and June 2015. This percentage increase represented three times the rate of annual inflation. College and university instructors consider the move to open educational resources (OERs) as an attempt to lower the cost of higher education in the United States. The selection of open educational resources represents a challenge in the absence of a standard set of selection criteria. Instructors have different perspectives about the accuracy and quality of open educational resources. Mezirow’s (1981) theory of transformative learning underpinned the study. The purpose of this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore perspectives about the accuracy and quality of OERs among instructors who have experience in applying Quality Matters’ (QM) standards in online course design and who have adopted and used OERs in online undergraduate courses. This research study employed a qualitative methodology with a hermeneutic phenomenological design. Sixteen voluntary participating faculty members were interviewed using Zoom. The audio files transcribed to text documents were the primary data source. Open and axial codes emerged from the interviews in a line-by-line review of each transcript leading to sentences or sentence fragments indicative of the faculty members’ responses. Faculty members cited cost, social equity, and lifelong learning as the main reasons to switch to OERs. The faculty members’ lived experiences using open educational resources in online undergraduate classes are discussed, analyzed, and presented. The research study presents implications for leadership and recommendations for future research.
- ItemA Study on Credit Recovery Programs and the Effect on Graduation Rates(2020) Coennen, KellieThe purpose of the study was to determine the statistical relationship between high school students in western Pennsylvania who regain credits through traditional and online credit recovery programs and their respected graduation rates. The problem was there was minimal indication whether or not there is a relationship between credit recovery programs and graduation rates, or whether students recuperate their lost credits through credit recovery programs. The literature review provided examples of similar research, and gaps that have left school administrators without the ability to determine which type of program might increase graduation rates the most. An ex post facto research design was used to collect data from a sample group of six school districts located in western Pennsylvania. Archived data was collected via surveys through email. The results of the SPSS determined the difference between traditional credit recovery programs, online credit recovery programs, the respected graduation rates, and recuperated credit rate. Results showed an increase in mean scores with recuperating lost credits through the use of credit recovery programs. No significant difference was noted between the districts and their graduation rates after implementing the programs.
- ItemCommunity for a University Online Statistics Course: A Quantitative Quasi-Experimental Study(2020) Cromar, RyanSince the advent of the internet, more professors and administrators from colleges and universities have been putting more classes online. These educators have been able to serve more students at a relatively lower cost. Educators have expressed concerns in online classes due to a lack of community. The study reveals gaps in the literature, which are assessing a sense of community for an online statistics class while assessing the sense of community within a mixture of different ages and genders in an online class. The theories of sense of community and servant leadership were the framework for the research. Research questions in the study reflect a concern about whether statistically significant differences exist in the sense of community in an online statistics class between different age groups and genders. The purpose of the quantitative quasi-experiment was to determine the possible differences between the levels of age and gender for the sense of community. The population was comprised of students taking an online statistics class at a university in Idaho, where a sample of 465 students was surveyed concerning the sense of community. All students taking the online statistics class were eligible to take a survey assessing the sense of community. A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted to assess the sense of community between age groups, genders, and age/gender groups. No statistically significant differences in the mean differences in the sense of community between age groups, genders, and age/gender groups surfaced. Educators seeking to improve the sense of community in either statistics classes and/or online classes might benefit from the research.
- ItemNontraditional Student Success in Entry-Level Mathematics Courses: An Explanatory Case Study(2020) Spaulding, LaurettaThe percentage of nontraditional students, or students age 25 and older, is increasing on college campuses in the United States (Caruth, 2014). Knowledge of mathematics is necessary for success in the technology-driven U.S. society (Kus, 2018). Research has been conducted on best practices for teaching mathematics to nontraditional students, but a gap in the literature remains on the motivational profiles of nontraditional students in entry-level postsecondary mathematics courses (Rothes, Lemos, & Gonçalves, 2017). Self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework for the qualitative case study. The purpose of the qualitative explanatory case study was to describe factors which may impact the success of nontraditional students in entry-level postsecondary mathematics courses at a community college in South Carolina. The population was nontraditional students age 25 and older enrolled in entry-level mathematics courses, and the sample size was 21 participants enrolled in entry-level mathematics courses at a community college in South Carolina. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. Results showed nontraditional students in entry-level mathematics courses were autonomously motivated to succeed, and teachers and outside academic assistance were experiences impacting nontraditional student success. Community colleges should provide nontraditional students with teacher-led academic assistance in entry-level mathematics courses to support nontraditional student success. This study can benefit community college educators and leaders by providing insight into practices leading to successful completion of entry-level mathematics for nontraditional students.
- ItemProfessional Identity of the Physician Leader: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study(2020) Owens, GaryPhysician professional identity remains elusive despite the role of physician leaders becoming more critical in a complex environment of healthcare. An abundance of literature exists relative to professional identity in other medical disciplines, such as nursing, though a gap remains with regards to physician leaders. The purpose of this study was to determine how professional identity of practicing physicians in leadership roles is established. This qualitative phenomenological study utilized authentic leadership theory as the lens through which to view data and results. Participants included eleven physician leaders from varied specialties and administrative time allocations. Data collection included recorded semi-structured interviews, conducted in person. Transcribed narratives were analyzed utilizing guidance from Moustakas and Saldanas, resulting in the emergence of five primary themes: identity formation begins prior to medical school, early leadership experiences form the basis for future roles, desire for greater impact drives physicians into leadership roles, physician leaders experience a duality of roles, and physician leaders are, above all, physicians first. Recommendations include future research of the perspectives of physician leader colleagues, selecting participants with full-time administrative responsibilities, expanding the geographic regions of potential participants, and developing physician-specific leadership courses. The expansive influence and clinical expertise unique to physician leaders can lead to exceptional outcomes for both organizations and patients. Intentional steps should be taken to ensure physicians hold both capability and competency for leadership roles.
- ItemIdentifying Stressors of Special Education Teachers: A Qualitative Phenomenological Approach(2020) McNally, ClarissaTeaching is a profound profession as it impacts the lives of future generations yet remains a profession which induces a great deal of stress. Many educators are ill-equipped to cope with the stressors of the job. In reviewing the literature, few studies can be found addressing the myriad causes of stress for teachers let alone for special education teachers. Some studies have determined there was a gap in evaluative research on stress interventions and improving employees’ well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study can fill the gaps in the literature by helping to identify stressors and effective coping strategies for special education teachers based on the experiences of special education teachers. The study could assist administrators and other policymakers and provide appropriate tools to support teachers in distress. Lazarus coping theory and transformational leadership theory helped guide and provide support for the study. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to understand the perceived causes of stress of special education teachers and identified supports to reduce stress levels as identified by special education teachers. The following were guiding questions for the study: How do special education teacher defined stress, what were the perceived causes of stress which impacted special education teachers, how do special education teachers sense the impact of stress in daily life, and how do special education teachers in suburban California schools cope with stress? Through in-depth virtual semi-structured interviews and a virtual focus group session, 15 suburban special education teachers answered the research questions. Special education teachers, administrators, and policymakers may benefit from the study as the aim was to minimize stressors by providing effective coping mechanisms to leaders.
- ItemSecondary Teachers’ Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs A Qualitative Phenomenological Study(2020) Little, Nandie KavitaAn increase in the culturally and linguistically diverse student population in the United States requires teachers to prepare to meet students’ needs in the changing classroom. Teachers with low self-efficacy beliefs lack the confidence to bridge cultural divides in classrooms and provide rigorous educational opportunities for culturally and linguistically diverse students. A literature gap exists concerning culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy beliefs among certified middle school teachers. The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to describe certified middle school teachers’ culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy beliefs, exploring teachers’ experiences and perceptions of personal abilities to rigorously teach culturally diverse students. Study questions explored culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy beliefs of certified middle school teachers; lived experiences, which influence teachers’ beliefs in the ability to implement culturally responsive teaching in culturally diverse classrooms; and teachers’ greatest successes and challenges in implementing culturally responsive teaching. An analysis of 15 teacher interviews and a four-member focus group were conducted using structural and lean coding. Results revealed teachers hold high self-efficacy beliefs regarding maintaining cultural awareness, building student relationships, and providing vocabulary instruction to address test bias. Descriptions of low self-efficacy beliefs involved teachers’ perceived ability to integrate students’ cultural backgrounds into instruction and to overcome language barriers when communicating with English language learners and parents. Limitations, recommendations, and implications for leadership were discussed.
- ItemQuantitative Comparison of Online Term Lengths at a Mississippi Community College(2020) Graham, ChadwickOnline education has become a major component of higher education providing flexibility to traditional and non-traditional students and a pathway for academic achievement. Online course offerings have increased over the decade and course lengths have begun to shorten. Traditional length semester courses of 15- or 16-weeks are now being offered in accelerated formats fewer than five weeks, although research is limited concerning accelerated online courses of four-weeks or fewer. The research study sought to address the gap in the research literature of online course lengths of four-weeks or fewer. Equivalency theory postulates students receive equivalent experiences in online courses. This research study compared student outcomes in traditional length and accelerated length online general psychology courses at a Mississippi community college. Using three years of archival data from a Mississippi community college, this study compared student success, retention rates, pass rates, and mastery rates in three- and four-week online courses to 15-week online courses. The objective was to share the research results with the Mississippi community college and the research community to provide students, administrators, instructors, and distance learning faculty, empirical evidence pertaining to the impact of online course lengths on student outcomes. The analysis showed a statistically significant difference in success rates, pass rates, and student mastery between accelerated online and traditional online course lengths. No statistically significant difference was found in retention rates between accelerated online and traditional online course lengths. The conclusion was accelerated online can produce equivalent outcomes as traditional length online courses.
- ItemThe Influence of Equine-assisted Interventions: A Case Study(2020) Pinho, KarlaEquine-assisted interventions (EAIs) were used to develop physical, social, and emotional skills in participants. The problem was the influence EAIs had on individuals with social or emotional deficits was unknown from the perspective of parents and instructors. The gap in the literature was previous studies lack feedback from the parents and instructors. Contingency leadership theory and biophilia theory framed the study. Research questions asked parents of children participating in EAI and instructors to describe experiences with EAI sessions. Questions were used to explore how parents and instructors perceived the influence and meaning of equine-assisted interventions on the social and emotional health of the clients at three therapeutic equine centers in Connecticut. The purpose of the qualitative, multiple case study was to explore the influence EAIs had on individuals with social or emotional deficits from the perspective of parents and instructors at three therapeutic riding centers in Connecticut. The target population for the multiple case study included EAI instructors and parents of individuals with social or emotional deficits who participate in EAIs in the state of Connecticut. Selection criteria included parents of children who utilized five or more equine-assisted intervention sessions in response to social or emotional deficits and the Professional Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship (PATH) certified instructors. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires. Emergent coding was used for data analysis. The findings of the study indicated equine-assisted interventions positively influenced the social and emotional skills of participants.
- ItemDescriptive Quantitative Study Investigating Japanese Perceptions About English Language Usefulness in Singapore(2020) de Villiers, AnnemarieResearch suggests negative perceptions about English usefulness are adversely impacting motivation in English learning of Japanese students. The study contributed to the understanding of how expatriate Japanese living abroad perceive English and the value of learning English. Research on the Japanese community in Singapore was limited, offering a unique opportunity to expand knowledge and fill a gap in the research literature. Transformational leadership and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, both strongly founded in a sensitive approach to empowering and supporting growth through active participation, underpinned the research. Four questions guided the research: (a) What are perceptions regarding the age of English introduction to Japanese children expressed by the Japanese community in Singapore? (b) What are perceptions of the usefulness of English by the Japanese community in Singapore? (c) How does the general use of English differ according to gender within the Japanese community in Singapore? and (d) What are the changes in perception about English learning and the usefulness of English of the Japanese community since living in Singapore? The purpose of the descriptive quantitative study was to understand perceptions regarding the usefulness of English and the value of learning English as reported by the Japanese community in Singapore. Through an online survey quantitative data were collected from parents of a private preschool to understand the perceptions about the usefulness and value of learning English outside of Japan. Major findings of the study were positive perceptions regarding the early introduction of English to Japanese children, enthusiasm about learning English, and the regular use of English for daily tasks and business communication. Statistically significant positive changes in perceptions about English usefulness and English learning were reported by the Japanese community since living in Singapore.
- ItemImpact of Mentoring on Novice School Principals: A Qualitative Case Study(2020) Pegram, MichelleFormal novice principal mentoring programs recommended to support and develop professional competencies for novice principals have benefits beyond the novice principal to the mentor, mentee, school, and school district. Although the benefits of principal mentoring are recognized, mentoring of new principals is not a common practice in many school districts. Literature related to mentees’ perspectives of mentoring experiences is limited. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to learn about the experiences, opinions, and attitudes of participants in a formal mentoring program in a large urban district. Experiential learning theory and transformational leadership theory were used to ascertain the impact of involvement. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 novice principals with 2–3 years’ experience after previously participating in the Comprehensive Principal Induction Program (CPIP) to gain insights into experiences with and perceptions of mentoring. The study examined in-depth answers to semi-structured interview questions concerning the principalship after partaking in the formal mentoring program in a large school district in Maryland. Member checking was used after data collection. Data were triangulated for precision and accuracy and were analyzed through a coding process in the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program, NVivo, to reveal trends and themes. Findings from this study provided insights into gaps in qualitative methodologies from mentees’ perspectives after actively participating in formal novice principal mentoring programs. As a result of this study, school district administrators can apply findings to adapt novice principals’ systemic mentoring program components.
- ItemInfluences of Health and Wellness Coaching Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention: A Correlational Study(2020) Babcock, JyennyIncreasing entrepreneurial roles among health workers signifies a need for entrepreneurial competencies. Development of entrepreneurial competencies is sometimes inadequately addressed in health training program curricula, which requires knowledge of student entrepreneurial characteristics to be sufficiently developed. The problem was the entrepreneurial characteristics of health and wellness coaching students were unknown. This gap in knowledge of student entrepreneurial characteristics prevents faculty from tailoring entrepreneurial education to student characteristics and needs. The purpose of this research was to document the entrepreneurial intention of health and wellness coaching students and determine the influence of gender, age, and individual entrepreneurial orientation of students to aid faculty development of effective entrepreneurial education. This quantitative correlational research was framed by the theory of planned behavior to determine the degree to which gender, age, and individual entrepreneurial orientation, individually and collectively, influenced the entrepreneurial intention of students in health and wellness coach training programs. Data were collected through an Internet-based survey using a total population sample of health and wellness coaching students (n = 63). Analyses showed 69.8% of students had entrepreneurial intention. Multiple regression was used to investigate whether gender, age, and individual entrepreneurial orientation influenced student entrepreneurial intention. Individually, age had a significant, positive influence on entrepreneurial intention; gender and individual entrepreneurial orientation had no influence. Collectively, gender, age, and individual entrepreneurial orientation did not influence entrepreneurial intention. The substantial proportion of health and wellness coaching students with entrepreneurial intention showed a need for coach training programs to offer entrepreneurial education tailored to suit student entrepreneurial characteristics.
- ItemA Comparative, Relational Study of Social-Emotional Learning and School Discipline by Race(2020) Parker, ShalahStudents of color in the United States have received school discipline with greater frequency and severity than White students. No known research exists which addresses the culturally responsive use of social-emotional learning universal screeners to address the discipline gap for students of color. The purpose of the quantitative, comparative, relational study was to identify any statistically significant differences in the frequency of school discipline and social-emotional learning universal screener scores of Black, Hispanic, and White students and which, if any, social-emotional learning scales were related to the frequency of school discipline for each of these groups in a large, urban school district in Colorado. The sample of 210 third-grade to fifth- grade students from six elementary schools was stratified into three equal-size groups by race. The Kruskal-Wallis H-tests with post hoc Mann-Whitney U-tests identified lesser frequency in out-of-school suspension (OSS) for Hispanic and Black students as compared to White students. Greater mean scale scores were identified in engagement for Black and Hispanic students as compared to White students. The Pearson Chi Square test detected a significant relationship between engagement and OSS and in-school suspension for both Hispanic and White students. Through the lenses of transformational leadership theory (Burns, 1978) and critical race theory (Bell, 1995), recommendations included the culturally responsive use of data and recognition of racism in the education system. Implications for leadership included facilitating educators’ culturally responsive use of data and professional growth in culturally responsive instruction.
- ItemMultiple Regression Analysis of Noncognitive Factors Affecting Academic Outcomes of First-time Detained Juvenile Delinquents(2020-03-22) Coker, DavidA review of the literature showed there was evidence to suggest many incarcerated juvenile delinquents experience lifelong problems. The problem addressed by this dissertation was to provide a description and analysis of the plight of first-time-detained juvenile delinquents and the impact of noncognitive attributes and academic achievement on grades. Since first-time-incarcerated juvenile delinquents were at risk for future failure in school and life, understanding causes of academic failure could improve graduation rates and transition back into society. Social learning theory and labeling theory suggested students behave by what the youths learned from other juveniles and the labels received from peers, parents, and the community. Adaptive leadership was used as the theoretical framework because teachers in juvenile detention centers face a myriad of problems and concerns beyond traditional school which require more than technical solutions. The research questions inquired about the degree of correlation between noncognitive attributes, academic achievement, and grades. Using a non-experimental, ex post facto design, a multiple regression analysis was conducted on archival data for first-time-detained juvenile delinquents. Three predictor variables were statistically significant and influenced academic performance measured by grades: verbal ability, social self-esteem, and prosocial skills. For juvenile delinquents (n = 72; males = 58, females = 14) aged 10-18 (M =15.3; SD = 1.6; range 10-18), the three predictor variables predicted English grades (adjusted R2 = .280) and Mathematics grades (adjusted R2 = .225). Other noncognitive attributes were discussed, and recommendations for policies and future research were outlined. The results of the study support past research findings on the interaction between student achievement, noncognitive attributes, and the need to improve communication skills of juvenile delinquents.